Document Type

Honors Project

First Advisor

Dr. Jennie Carr

Degree Award Date

Fall 2019


Elementary Education, Manipulatives, Elementary Math


Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods | Elementary Education


The use of manipulatives in elementary schools is one beneficial method that has been utilized to help students grasp abstract mathematical concepts. To examine the effectiveness of implementing mathematical manipulatives, researchers designed a seven week intervention for ten low-achieving third and fourth graders. Topics focused on the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics number and operations strand. Data was collected based on observation with the use of a Likert scale measuring each student’s achievement with the chosen and designed manipulatives. Success is defined as students being able to complete assessments using the manipulatives without aid and with little to no computation errors. Results suggest that there was a 70% success rate in third grade students and an 84% success rate for fourth graders. It was concluded that the manipulatives helped students complete number sense operations when used in tutoring, but may not have aided in students’ abstract understanding of mathematics concepts.

Recommended Citation

Lantz, Jenifer, and Caitlyn Miller. "The Effectiveness of Mathematical Manipulatives in One-on-One Intervention for Third and Fourth Grade Students." Senior Honors Projects, Bridgewater College, 2019.

Force Open Access