Document Type

Honors Project

First Advisor

Dr. Tamara Johnstone-Yellin

Degree Award Date

Spring 2022


Hunting, hypocrisy, wildlife management, equity and inclusion




Democracy of Hunting, the seventh pillar of the North American Model of Wildlife Management, and the Pittman-Robertson Act support wildlife conservation based on access to hunting available to all. Although this pillar supports wildlife management in the United States, it also discriminates against underrepresented groups, and therefore harms conservation efforts. Historically, African Americans, women, Native Americans, and immigrants were excluded from hunting while also promoting hunting participation by white settlers. Today, financial (e.g. cost of hunting), and physical barriers still exclude these groups from hunting. Modern programs like workshops for hunting introductions at colleges may narrow the participation gap caused by these barriers; however, societal barriers that perpetuate the idea that these groups do not belong in hunting spaces are more difficult to combat. We explore the hypocrisy in implementation of the 7th Pillar in the history of the conservation movement in the United States and comment on current programs intended to increase consumptive and nonconsumptive uses of wildlife. By increasing participation among underrepresented groups we can aspire to a true democracy of wildlife access that funds wildlife management and conservation.