Micaela Weaver

Document Type

Honors Project

First Advisor

Dr. Barbara H. Long

Second Advisor

Dr. Stephen Baron

Degree Award Date

Spring 2009


Bacterial Infections and Mycoses | Medicine and Health Sciences | Sports Sciences


The incidence of community-acquired and healthcare-acquired infections continues to increase, as does antibiotic resistance. For this reason it is important for athletic training facilities to be aware of the risk of nosocomial infection and how the modalities used contribute to this risk. Ultrasound and electrical stimulation are two of the most popular modalities used and are reliant upon skin-to-skin contact and often used on multiple patients consecutively. Twenty-two surfaces from athletic training modalities were sampled and tested for the presence of common skin bacteria. This resulted in the contamination of 19 .3% of electrodes and none of the ultrasound transducer heads. This highlights the importance of proper cleaning techniques, as well as justifies the use of single-patient electrodes.