Cara Sedney

Document Type

Honors Project

First Advisor

Dr. Robyn Puffenbarger

Degree Award Date

Spring 2003


herbicides, Prop Anil, Two Four D, Antibody Response, immunotoxic effects, mice


Animal Sciences | Biology | Immunology and Infectious Disease


Chemical mixtures are an important phenomenon in the environment, which have not been studied extensively as to their potential health effects. Two widely used herbicides, Propanil and 2,4-D, were tested for immunotoxic effects on mice. Mice were given a dose of one herbicide or both and challenged with S. Pneumonia, and antibody response was measured at 7 and 14 days post-immunization. Antibody producing B cells in the spleen were measured along with soluble antibody levels in the blood. Cell numbers in the spleen were counted and a cytokine analysis was also performed. The mixture-treated animals had a significantly larger number of antibody producing cells than controls at day 7, although no increase in serum antibody levels was found. In addition, TNF-a levels were increased in mixture and propanil treated animals. The mixture-treated mice also had higher numbers of neutrophils in the spleen at days 7 and 14 and higher numbers of marginal zone B cells on day 7. These effects suggest a synergistic interaction between the two herbicides. 1